By the time Santo Rumbo turned up in Luxembourg, he was already deeply enmeshed in the world of the Italian mafia.
At just 31 years old, he’d allegedly risen to one of the highest ranks of the ’Ndrangheta, the vicious Calabrian crime group that is responsible for a good chunk of Europe’s cocaine trade.
So Italian police were more than a little concerned to learn he had moved to the tiny northwestern European nation, where he got involved in a restaurant business along with a group of young migrants from an impoverished Italian village near his hometown of Siderno, in the ’Ndrangheta’s heartland.
The intensely hierarchical and clannish ’Ndrangheta have fanned out across the world from their home base in southern Italy, often using family-based chain migration to get footholds in new markets.
But the town of Siderno, on the sunny Ionian coast, is still the capital of their global narco-empire. There, the mighty Commisso clan rules over a number of ’Ndrangheta families that are so powerful that their decisions can affect global cocaine prices.
Santo Rumbo’s father, Riccardo, was one of these family leaders, heading the Rumbo-Figliomeni ‘ndrina
A ‘ndrina is a sub-unit of the ‘Ndrangheta usually run by one extended family.
He had a reputation for power and ruthlessness, and taught Santo the ways of his trade. In 2009, the younger Rumbo set up a money-lending business in Siderno under his father’s guidance. When Riccardo was jailed in 2010, Santo allegedly took an important role in the Rumbo ’ndrina.
At some point after that — investigators don’t know when — Santo Rumbo made his way to Canada, where he spent time with mob bosses there and received one of the ’Ndrangheta’s highest rankings.
🔗Societies and Endowments
The upper echelons of the ’Ndrangheta are intensely secretive and almost impossible to penetrate. Even lower-ranking mafiosi might not know who holds what dote, or rank, much less police and investigators. But we do know that doti are incredibly important.
The highest possible dote is Padrino, followed by Quartino, Trequartino, Vangelo, and Santa. Only mafiosi holding one of these top rankings are allowed to interact with heads of other mafia groups, the state, business leaders, and members of the fraternal order of Freemasons. Mafiosi above a certain dote are also eligible to sit on the provincia, the institution that rules over the entire ’Ndrangheta.
Like any other organization, the ’Ndrangheta can suffer from title inflation. The Vangelo ranking was created relatively recently, after bosses felt the ranks of the Santa had become too crowded, according to notes seized during searches.
Prosecutors in Reggio Calabria only learned about Santo Rumbo’s high ranking by chance, when they overheard two ’Ndrangheta bosses in Canada talking about him on a wiretap. One mentioned that Rumbo was given a higher dote than his brother, who’d held the Vangelo until he died.
If Rumbo did hold a ranking of Trequartino before the age of 30, this would have been an extraordinarily rapid rise through the mafia ranks.
Unfortunately for him, around that time an Italian police operation was under way to root out branches of the ’Ndrangheta in Canada. Wiretapped conversations from Operation Canadian Connection 2 tipped police off that Santo Rumbo’s next stop was Luxembourg.
The tiny country in the heart of Europe is one of the continent’s most notorious tax havens and has a poor record on corporate transparency. Until recently there was no public information available about who owned companies registered in Luxembourg.
This can make it hard for Italian investigators to follow networks into that country. These very same qualities made it a draw for the mafia, according to Giuseppe Lombardo, a top antimafia prosecutor in the ’Ndrangheta stronghold of Reggio Calabria.
“The ’Ndrangheta sees Luxembourg as an interesting place to invest and launder capital precisely because, in that country, there are financial systems and discreet ‘coffers’ that are extremely attractive for those who need to stash illicit money and black funds,” he said.
Police did manage to arrest Rumbo in 2019, in Luxembourg, on the basis of the Canadian wiretap evidence. “But we never got to investigate what he was doing [there],” said an Italian officer who led the Canadian operation, speaking on condition of anonymity so he did not expose himself while working on anti-mafia investigations. “It is surely worth digging into.”
Members of the OpenLux project decided to try.
🔗About the Project
In 2019, after years of pressure, Luxembourg established a public database of the ultimate beneficial owners (UBOs) of companies registered within its borders. But the new register has a major limitation: It can only be searched by company name or registration number. It doesn’t allow searches using the names of people who own the companies, allowing them to maintain a degree of secrecy.
To get around this, French newspaper Le Monde managed to scrape 3.3 million records from the register’s online platform, then collaborated with OCCRP’s data team to make them searchable. This allowed journalists from across the world to search the register by name for the first time and determine who owns what.
Searching through newly available data on corporate ownership in Luxembourg, they found that, as anti-mafia police suspected, Santo Rumbo was not alone in the Grand Duchy.
Surrounding him was a group of around 20 young entrepreneurs from Siderno and Mammola, a village of around 2,700 people perched in Italy’s Aspromonte mountains just above the Siderno seaside. Some of them opened and closed a succession of restaurants working together with Rumbo and another mafia scion, the son of the ’Ndrangheta chief in Mammola.
Mammola’s branch of the ’Ndrangheta takes orders from Siderno’s, which ranks above it in the mafia hierarchy.
But while members of the Siderno mafia famously migrated en masse to Canada and Australia, where they continue to wreak havoc today, Mammola families mostly made their way north, to Belgium and Luxembourg, according to Anna Sergi, a professor of criminology at the University of Essex.
“It is thought from investigations in Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands especially, that Luxembourg is a transit territory for both mafia individuals and their activities and money,” explained Sergi, a leading expert on the ’Ndrangheta.
By cross-referencing corporate ownership and social network data, OCCRP’s partner IrpiMedia identified a larger group of 17 families from Mammola who have social ties and run a number of restaurants in Luxembourg’s Esch-sur-Alzette canton.
Some of these restaurants make explicit references to the mafia in their decor and theme, with framed pictures of Scarface on the walls and bakers dressed in aprons emblazoned with images of El Padrino — The Godfather.
Coming from Mammola doesn’t automatically make anyone a criminal, but Sergi said youth in the impoverished village are highly vulnerable to ’Ndrangheta recruitment.
“Mammola is a tiny village without many opportunities for young people, so it becomes easy for youngsters to be lured by the possibilities of moving away and setting up a business abroad on behalf of, and thanks to, ’Ndrangheta money and contacts,” she said.
The Mammola-Luxembourg Express
Despite the difficulties of investigating in Luxembourg, Italian prosecutors say they have reason to believe the ’Ndrangheta have established a significant presence there.
As with many mafia groups, this happened through chain migration. In the 19th century, Calabrians flocked north to take jobs in the burgeoning steel industry hub of Minett, a region southwest of the capital.
Starting in the 1980s, the ’Ndrangheta began to follow, with one family member settling up north and then sending for others. Some settled in Differdange, the biggest city in the region, which is strategically located near the border between Belgium and France.
Federico Varese, a professor of criminology at the University of Oxford, said this type of chain migration is a key part of the ’Ndrangheta’s success, giving them “a much larger global reach than the other Italian mafias.”
In Luxembourg, the ’Ndrangheta also have the advantage of longevity. Many mafia families have been there for decades, and their members never had criminal records in Italy, according to Lombardo, the prosecutor in Reggio Calabria.
“In Luxembourg, we have detected the active presence of people linked to the ’Ndrangheta who are not easily classified, because the connections date back a long time,” he said.
“At the time there wasn’t yet proper investigative activity [in Calabria], aimed at mapping all the foreign projections of the ’Ndrangheta.”
The anti-mafia investigator who spoke on condition of anonymity said Italian authorities had seen a number of young people from “‘Ndrangheta environments” moving to Luxembourg to open restaurants — “clearly not with pocket money, given how poor Calabria is.”
Rumbo’s lawyer, Giuseppe Calderazzo, said that his client had every right to move to Luxembourg, as an EU citizen.
“Actually, he chose Luxembourg to get away from a land that caused him much suffering due to mere prejudices not backed by evidence,” he added.
Archives de la Ville de Dudelange – Fonds Jean-Pierre Conrardy
Early Italian migrants in Luxembourg.
Mammola Family Matters
In 2014, two young men from Mammola opened a Luxembourg company, I Bronzi Sarl
“I Bronzi” means “The Bronzes” in Italian, a reference to two famous Greek statues of bearded young warriors discovered off the Calabrian coast, now displayed in a museum in Reggio Calabria. “Sarl” is a suffix referring to a common type of company in Luxembourg, “Société à responsabilité limitée.”
, with 12,500 euros of capital. The first thing it did was set up a frozen yogurt shop called Happy Yogo in Differdange’s historic center.
The following year, it closed and the company was declared dormant. The Mammola men were struck off the register in January 2019, and soon Santo Rumbo entered the business, along with two associates from Siderno.
In March 2019, despite still being dormant, I Bronzi opened a nearby sports bar serving Italian food. In a Facebook picture taken shortly after it opened, Rumbo stands between his two associates, grinning as they grip a bottle of champagne. Next to them is an unusual cake depicting, in frosting, a beer being poured out over a barrel topped with the bar’s logo.
One of the men pictured is the 25-year-old nephew of Tito Figliomeni, an associate of Santo Rumbo’s father in the Rumbo-Figliomeni ’ndrina. The second man is known by police intelligence as an active drug trafficker from northern Europe, and was arrested in France in 2006 in possession of amphetamines. He is still running the bar today.
Such small companies are not required to use a chartered accountant, and need only provide an abridged report of profits and losses, so it’s impossible to know the company’s real finances. However, the accounts that OpenLux reporters do have show very little activity for a restaurant.
Rumbo’s lawyer claimed his client was only “a simple employee of the bistro,” never an investor or manager, and therefore couldn’t answer questions about its finances. However, Rumbo is listed in Luxembourg’s business register as a director of the company. (“Your source is wrong,” his lawyer said when asked about Rumbo’s control of the company.)
A few months after leaving I Bronzi, in April 2019, one of the two young men from Mammola co-founded another Luxembourg company, SAA Sarl. This company also opened an Italian restaurant, Romeo e Giulietta. Like its namesakes, it died young, after barely more than a year.
One of the co-founders was another character with family ties to the ’Ndrangheta. He is the son of Rodolfo Scali, the capo locale (local head) of the organized crime group for Mammola, and a high-ranking member of the ’Ndrangheta hierarchy.
The pattern is striking: scions of both the Rumbo and Scali families managed companies in Luxembourg established with the help of the same young man from Mammola.
OpenLux also identified yet another group of three young people from Mammola that opened and closed two restaurants in Differdange since 2017. They also founded a restaurant management company with very little capital, at the same address later used to open Romeo e Giulietta.
Opening restaurants and cafes with just a tiny amount of capital and almost no money on the books, then letting them go bankrupt, is typical of the mafia, according to the senior antimafia investigator who tracked Rumbo down. This creates an excuse to open a local bank account and move money in, without allowing a company to get so big it attracts regulation and attention.
OCCRP has uncovered no evidence that any of these Luxembourg businesses engaged in illegal activity.
But one thing is now clear: the Rumbo family had a relationship with Luxembourg dating as far back as 2008. That’s the year in which an associate of the Rumbo ’ndrina — a man who was tried, but later acquitted, of helping Rumbo Sr. launder drug money through a property development — opened a real estate company in Luxembourg.
At the time, the beneficial owners of Luxembourg companies were kept secret, and the man may have assumed his tie to this firm would never be revealed.