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Fascist Russia? Historians say ‘no’

Experts Putin They cited a number of non-fascist models that shed light on Russia. For example, during World War II, Japan argued with fascism, but it was not

Leading experts of the West Vladimir Putin Russia is said to be an aggressive, dangerous dictatorship, some of which resemble fascist regimes. But in their opinion, Russia not a fascist in itself, and other historical precedents help to understand the Kremlin.

Putin to Ukraine on February 24 snowlarge-scale attack began. He attacked the country’s “Nazis.” and managed by “drug addicts”, ethical Russians snowbased on allegations of genocide.

“Closed, repressive dictatorship”

RFE / RL correspondent Robert Coalson writes, citing critics that, Russia to Ukraine snowThe claim of a fascist state is, in fact, a description of Russia’s own internal situation. Political scientist at Rutgers University Alexander Motil wrote in early March that, “Russia’s brutal occupation of Ukraine shows that the term ‘fascist’ needs to be reconsidered in order to be applied to Russia.”

Putin’s Russia is a “closed, repressive dictatorship.” But there are different types of dictatorships, and fascism is just one of them. ”- Populism at Barnard College, Columbia University and professor studying fascism Sherry Berman told the radio.

Honorary Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin, author of numerous books on fascism in Europe Stanley PayneAccording to Putin, Russia “does not correspond to the fascist regimes of World War II, but since then it is close to the analogue of fascism in a large country.”

Weimar Syndrome

Postdoctoral student at Virginia Polytechnic Institute Maria Sneqovayato the words of according to, Adolf Hitler Like Germany Russia also suffered from Weimar Syndrome. That is, the collapse of Germany after the First World War, isolation, loss of status Russia He lived after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Leaders in both countries are anxious, nostalgic and they were able to skillfully manipulate feelings of resentment.

Putin 1999-20Rose to power in the 2000s over fears of the Second Chechen War, defended the Russian Constitution and agreed to provide. In order to be able to extend his rule after 2024, the constitution was amended, and his previous four presidential terms were “reset”.

“Putin’s regime is a centralized, right-wing, authoritarian dictatorship, not revolutionary, but reactionary.” Says historian Payne and Russia’s “weak economy and He added that the “demographic base” appears to be a “declining force, not a rising force.”

Russia’s “real fascists”

East Stockholm Europe research center analyst Andreas Umland said in a recent interview that, “Fascist leaders want to create a new world order, a new empire, a new people. They want their people to be revived through war and imperialist expansion. “

The recently deceased head of the LDPR Vladimir Zhirinovskycalling himself a philosopher Alexander Dugin Such “real fascists” “describe a completely new Russia in their writings” and cover lands that have never been under tsarist or Soviet rule, Umland notes.

Snegovaya points out that Putin has no vision for the future of Russia. “Russia is out of the current international order and He complains about Russia’s position there, but there is no alternative vision. “ He says.

Mass mobilization and society

Analysts see another difference between Putin’s Russia and classical fascism in the lack of mass mobilization. So. that, fascist regimes “a very large mass movement to power, political The party came up with what we call civil society organizations today. Putin did not come to power, “said Berman of Columbia University. “As with many dictatorships, Putin is increasingly demobilizing the people,” he added.

According to Snegovaya, Russian society is “extremely passive.” and is in a fragmented state. ” Moreover, Russia is a post-totalitarian society, “having a very bad experience of mobilizing around big ideas.”

As a result, Russian society lazily accepts Putin’s revanchist ideas because it “touches on feelings and explains the hardships of the population.”

“But this is not a society that will embrace these ideas.” – Emphasizes Snegovaya.

Non-fascist models

Experts interviewed by RFE / RL cited a number of non-fascist models that shed light on Putin’s Russia. For example, during World War II, Japan argued with fascism, but it was not. Or Germany before World War I was seen as a “weakened regime,” then a local and nationalism to create fear of foreign enemies way caught.

Payne is Putin political system in the 19th century by Tsar Nicholas I “Orthodoxy, autocracy and nationalism ”rather than Hitler and With Mussolini’s revolutionary, modernizing regimes.

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